Longitudinal linkages between parenting stress and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms among Chinese children with ODD.

Parents of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) experience considerable stress and challenges in parenting. Based on a 2-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of children with ODD (N = 243, mean age = 9.47 years, SD = 1.53; 72.8% boys) and their parents in Mainland China, our study examined the relation between 3 dimensions of parenting stress (i.e., Parental Distress, Parent–Child Dysfunctional Interaction, and Difficult Child) and their children’s ODD symptoms. Using cross-lagged panel models, we tested the bidirectional relation between parenting stress and children’s ODD symptoms. We found evidence for both parent-driven and child-driven effects. Specifically, Parent–Child Dysfunctional Interaction (PCDI) at T2 positively predicted children’s ODD symptoms at T3. Moreover, children’s ODD symptoms at T1 positively predicted parental perceptions of Difficult Child and PCDI at T2. Further, children’s ODD symptoms at T2 positively predicted all 3 dimensions of parenting stress at T3. Further, multiple-group path analysis by child’s gender suggested that PCDI had a significant negative relation with girls’ (but not boys’) ODD symptoms from T1 to T2 and had a significant positive relation with boys’ (but not girls) ODD symptoms from T2 to T3. These findings provided support for the dynamic relations among parenting stress, parent–child interaction, and children’s ODD symptoms and highlighted the different effects of child gender in the parent–child interaction process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)