Individual differences in long-term memory.

The literature on individual differences in long-term memory (LTM) is organized and reviewed. This includes an extensive review of the factor structure of LTM abilities as well as specific individual differences in criterial tasks such as free recall, paired associates recall, and recognition. It is demonstrated that individual differences in LTM abilities are represented by various lower order factors based on criterial tasks as well as by a more general higher-order LTM factor. These individual differences are linked with multiple different constructs including working memory, intelligence, and attention control. Individual differences in forgetting, interference control, false memory, testing effects, general retrieval abilities, and the influence of strategies are also examined. Overall, it is clear that there are substantial and robust individual differences in LTM abilities and that these abilities demonstrate important relations with other cognitive abilities. Future directions and an integration of individual differences in a general framework of memory are discussed, and it is suggested that combined experimental and correlational approaches are needed to better understand individual differences in LTM and that individual differences in LTM should be used to better test and revise theories of LTM processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)